Amazon Rio I – Flora

Amazon Rio I

FLORA

Dryland forest (Terra firme)

The forest survey carried out on a dryland area about 4 km long, west of Amazon Rio I, yielded 43 species in 20 families, where Fabaceae (16%), Sapotaceae (15%), Arecaceae (12%), Burseraceae (9%) and Lecytidaceae (8%) were predominant. Within these families the main tree species include copal (Protium sp.) and abiurana (Pouteria sp.), species that are abundant and frequently found throughout the region.

The most common species found in the dryland survey were abiurana branca (Micropholis mensalis), acariquara (Minquartia guianensis), cedrinho (Erisma uncinatum), maparajuba (Manilkara paraensis), massaranduba (Manilkara huberi), pau marfim (Calycophyllum acreanum) and tacacazeiro (Sterculia speciosa). The presence of species of great ecological importance, such as Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), copaíba jacaré (Ducke Eperua oleifera), tento (pavonina Adenanthera L.), fava (Abarema sp.), pajurá (Prance Licania laevigata), tauarí (Couratari guianensis Aubl.), arurá (Osteophloeum platyspermum) and jutaí (Pterocarpus sp.).

Among these species, the Brazil nut has contributed significantly to the economy of local residents due to the large-scale commercialization of the seed, which is conducted through a cooperative agreement, COVEMA, and which will be described later.

There was also record of palms such as açaí (Euterpe precatoria), babaçu (Attalea speciosa), caramuri (Pouteria elegans) and patauá (Oenocarpus bataua), widely used as food and caranaí palm (Lepidocaryum tenue), whose seeds are used for making handicrafts and its leaves used to cover housing communities in the interior of Amazonas. In general, palm trees species contribute significantly to the plant diversity of the whole region where the Amazon Rio I is located.

Floodplain area (varzea)

The expedited survey in floodplain (várzea) areas found that they are forested with heterogeneous formations, which include tree and shrub species. 103 forest species in 29 families where identified in these forests, including 27 trees not necessarily of the same species and not identified by the local residents.

On floodplains the most abundant plant families are Arecaceae (18%), Euphorbiaceae (15%), Moraceae (9%), Myristicaceae (7%), Chrysobalanaceae (6%), Fabaceae (6%), Sapotaceae (4%), Meliaceae (4%) and Lecythidaceae (4%), mainly represented by seringa or rubber tree (Hevea pauciflora), seringa barriguda (Hevea spruceana), jataúba (Guarea guidonia), apuí (Ficus sp.), assacu (Hura crepitans), andiroba (Carapa guianensis), cedro (Cedrela odorata), muirapiranga (Brosimum angustifolium), muiratinga (Maquira sclerophylla) and virola (Virola cuspidata), also known by the name of ucuúba. All these species are tree species and used for various purposes such as construction, shipbuilding, furniture, packaging and seeds for handicrafts.

On the floodplains large rubber plantations exist with a history of tapping where old and new cuts can be seen in the same tree. Also notable is the occurrence of other species which were logged in the past for their timber value, such as paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum), copaíba mari-mari (Copaifera reticulata), envira de cutia (Scleronema micranthum), garrote (Brosimum utile) e copaiba jacaré (Eperua oleifera).