Amazon Rio I
Regarding animal species, biological surveys carried out within Amazon Rio I Sustainable Reserve and vicinity indicated the presence of 29 species of mammals, 210 species of birds, 18 species of amphibians and 85 species of fish. Pacas, agoutis, armadillos, deer, spider monkeys, howler monkeys, capuchin monkeys, tapirs, peccaries and catitus are among the main species of animals mentioned by the community during the participatory workshops.
Over the course of 82 km of dryland forest, 47 records of medium to large mammals were obtained through visual observation and collected material such as tracks, droppings, and skulls.
The presence of 29 species distributed among seven orders were confirmed, as presented in the Amazon Rio I and surroundings
The presence of large carnivores, such as jaguar (Panthera onca) and cougar (Puma concolor), indicates high environmental quality, and may be linked to low anthropic pressure, thus allowing the perpetuation of viable populations of these. Moreover, the presence of giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) in surrounding rivers, as in the Amazon Rio I Sustainable Reserve, can be considered a good indicator of environmental balance and water quality.
In the Amazon Rio I surroundings, 210 species of birds have been recorded, four of which are new species: the hawk (gavião in Portuguese) (Leucopternis sp), the antwren (chororozinho in Portuguese) (Herpsilochmus sp.), the tody-tyrant (maria in Portuguese) (Hemitriccus sp), and jay (gralha in Portuguese) (Cyanocorax sp). The geographic distribution of these four new species is limited, probably due to the small Madeira-Purus interfluve.
Another important result was the extent of the distribution of five species along hundreds of kilometers of forest: ocellated crake (maxalalagá in Portuguese) (Micropygia schomburgkii), least nighthawk (bacurauzinho in Portugues) (Chordeiles pusillus), black antbird (chororó-preto in Portuguese) (Cercomacra serva), citron-bellied attila (tinguaçu-de-barriga-amarela in Portuguese) (Attila citriniventris) and wedge-tailed grass finch (canário-do-campo in Portuguese) (Emberizoides herbicola), which indicates the heterogeneity of the area and the availability of resources throughout its length.
In the vicinity of Amazon Rio I and Amapa River, 18 amphibian species belonging to five families were recorded, the most frequent being Hylidae and Leptodactylidae. The dryland forest harbors high richness of poison dart frogs. Colostethus caeruleodactylus has been found in the Autazes region and recently along the Purus River, was found in large numbers on dryland with Brazil nut trees, near the Amapá River. The area of occurrence of the species has expanded to about 210 km to the South.
Three species of snakes were also identified: Brown-banded water snake (Helicops angulatus), olive forest racer (Dendrophidion dendrophis) and the pit viper (jararaca in Portuguese) Bothrops sp. in dryland forests. The smooth-fronted caiman (Paleosuchus trigonatus) was registered on the banks of the Amapá River, a species that lives on dryland streams and near larger rivers.
The biological survey of fish in the Amazon Rio I surroundings, more specifically in the Amapá State Reserve surveyed igarapés (seasonally flooded streams), 9 of which are small streams (1st/2nd order) and two intermediate-sized streams (3rd/4th order).
Spot checks took place on the Amapá River, divided into five parts. 133 species were found, belonging to seven orders and 28 families. These include the contributions of the Characiformes (73 species), Siluriformes (27 species), Gymnotiformes (15 species), Perciformes (14), Beloniformes (2 species) and Synbranchiformes and Cyprinodontiformes (1 species each).
Six species were highly abundant, representing 46.26% of all individuals collected. The most notable were Physopyxis ananas and Hypopygus lepturus, representing 11.28% and 10.99% respectively, followed by the Hyphessobrycon sp. (9.49%), by Apistogramma cf. agassizii (6.09%), the butterflyfish (Carnegiella strigata) (4.54%) and by Hemigrammus gr. Belottii) (3.88%). The number of species recorded in each stream sampled ranged from 16 to 45. The recording of at least three species described as Gladioglanis sp. n., Gymnotus sp. n. “brindle” and Synbranchus sp. is worth noting.
The diversity and distribution pattern of these individuals in relation to their species were very high, and dominance was extremely low. The presence of several species considered rare and even new species with the same genetically viable populations, with an area of reproduction and development of young individuals was confirmed.
Manicoré presents great diversity of fish species, contributing significantly to the local economy. The main destinations for fishing expeditions are the rivers: Madeira (29.5%), Manicoré (16.2%) and Atininga (8.0%), lakes Acará (9.8%) and Boquerão (8.8%) and the Matupiri igarapé (8.1%). The most frequently marketed species are Semaprochilodus spp, pacu (Mylossoma duriventre), Prochilodus nigricans, sardine (Triportheus spp.), jatuarana (Brycon spp.), Curimatidae, Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum, Anostomidae and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum. The first 5 species listed are the most heavily commercialized, which represent 75% of the fish marketed in the region.
These numbers may represent, in the medium and long-terms, a threat to the conservation of fish species in the region, when management strategies will be necessary to selectively fish the most heavily consumed species.